Joint hypermobility is receiving a growing amount of clinical and academic attention due to its detection, evaluation, and therapy complexity and the need for suitable referral channels. This state-of-the-science review provides an international, interdisciplinary viewpoint on the manifestation, cause, and evaluation of joint hypermobility, as it manifests in both people with and without a systemic ailment. Researchers summarized the research, advised standardizing nomenclature and outcome metrics, and made managerial recommendations.
The main areas of discussion included the historical perspectives; current definitions of hypermobility, laxity, and instability; inheritance and acquisition of hypermobility; traditional and novel assessments; strengths and limitations of current assessment tools; age, sex, and racial considerations; phenotypic presentations; and generalized hypermobility spectrum disorder and hypermobility Ehlers-D; and clinical ramifications and future avenues for study.
The reader will be better equipped to manage people who appear with joint hypermobility if they have a solid grasp of these subjects and are aware of their genesis. For example, the treatment of acquired joint hypermobility frequently observed in performing artists, certain athletic populations, posttrauma, etc., would be different from that of generalized joint hypermobility in a complicated, multisystem disorder setting.
Additionally, patients with symptomatic hypermobility typically exhibit musculoskeletal symptoms. However, they may also experience systemic symptoms such as tiredness, orthostatic intolerance, and gastrointestinal or genitourinary problems. Some additionally exhibit structural vascular or cardiac variations, tissue and skin fragility, bone malformations, and other characteristics that call for additional medical attention. The in-depth analysis of the whole gamut of joint hypermobility will be helpful to physicians, educators, coaches/sports trainers, and/or investigators in this field.