1. In this systematic review, five studies showed a significant correlation between religiosity/spirituality (R/S) and medication adherence amongst patients with cardiovascular disease, whereas four reported a negative or null association.
2. Furthermore, there was a paucity of evidence exploring this relationship amongst patients specifically with coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, angina, and myocardial infarction.
Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good)
In the literature, religiosity has been shown to influence the health behaviors of individuals with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). It is also known that approximately 50% of these patients are non-adherent to their medication. Currently, no systematic review has investigated the association between R/S and medication adherence among patients with CVDs. As a result, the objective of the present study was to describe the nature and extent of this relationship.
Of 407 identified records, 9 were included between 2006-2018. Studies were included if they measured R/S and medication adherence in patients with a range of CVDs of all ages and all settings. Non-research or non-original research articles were excluded. Quality was assessed using the Crowe Critical Appraisal Tool (CCAT). Data was analyzed using a qualitative narrative synthesis.
Results demonstrated that five studies showed a significant correlation between religiosity/spirituality (R/S) and medication adherence amongst patients with CVDs. On the contrary, four reported a negative or null association. Some studies have found no relationships between R/S and medication adherence in hypertension and heart failure patients. Furthermore, there was a paucity of evidence in patients with coronary artery diseases, arrhythmia, angina and myocardial infarction. However, the study was limited by the small number of included studies with findings applying only to either hypertension or heart failure. Nonetheless, the present study was the first to examine the relationship between R/S and medication adherence among patients with CVDs and may provide more opportunities for future research.
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