The following is a summary of the “Breaking down the complex pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis,” published in the January 2022 issue of Allergy and Clinical Immunology by Underwood, et al.
Chronic and worsening esophageal dysfunction and antigen-driven type 2 inflammation characterize eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), an immune-mediated illness. Since its discovery over 20 years ago, their knowledge of EoE pathophysiology has expanded, leading to new diagnostic and therapeutic methods that impact patient care.
Many factors, including heredity, age, allergy comorbidities, and allergen exposures, affect disease onset and progression. In addition, a dysregulated feed-forward cycle between the esophageal epithelium and the immune system plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of EoE.
Epithelial activation of the immune system in the esophagus that is skewed towards type 2 responses in response to allergens perpetuates a vicious cycle of mucosal barrier dysfunction, allergic inflammation, and organ dysfunction. In this article, they examine what is known about the most fundamental pathophysiological pathways that contribute to the pathophysiology of EoE.