The following is a summary of “Characterization of periprosthetic environment microbiome in patients after total joint arthroplasty and its potential correlation with inflammation,” published in June 2023 issue of Infectious Diseases by Li, et al.
In the retrospective study, researchers aimed to learn more about periprosthetic microbiota in patients with Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). PJI is a big concern after joint replacement surgery.
The study involved the following patients: 28 with confirmed PJI, 14 with suspected PJI, and 35 without any infection. Further, they performed untargeted metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) and bioinformatics analysis. The outcomes indicated that the periprosthetic environment microbiome differed in PJI and non-PJI groups. Then, using the RandomForest Model, they built a “typing system” for the periprosthetic microbiota and tested it with other samples to ensure it worked.
The study grouped periprosthetic microbiota into “Staphylococcus type,” “Pseudomonas type,” “Escherichia type,” and “Cutibacterium type” categories. Each category had different effects on patients. The patients with the first two types had stronger inflammation than others. According to the 2014 Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria, clinical PJI was more likely to be confirmed with the first two categories. Additionally, composition changes in the Staphylococcus spp were linked to markers of inflammation in the body, like C-reactive protein levels, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the synovial fluid white blood cell count and granulocyte percentage.
The study illuminated the understanding of the periprosthetic environment microbiome in post-TJA patients. The “typing system” for periprosthetic microbiota was a valuable reference for future studies on periprosthetic joint infection.